Biodiversity

 

Program financed from EEA fonds –  www.eeagrants.org

Flora

14The vegetation of this area develops in a moderate climate, with hot summers and moderate temperatures in winter. The average annual temperature is of 10.5°C, and the annual average rainfall of 550 mm . Many plants in the area need to germinate during flooding and also to consume fresh nutrients dissolved in water. Besides the grass species cultivated in arable lands in the dam-bank or high terrace – shore, in the wild flora are common species as Calamagrostis epigeios, Agropyron repens, Artemisia vulgaris, Filago arvensis, Falcaria vulgaris, Malva pusilla, Lepidium draba, Festuca valleriaca.

The plants are represented by over 1000 species and subspecies of wood plants and herbaceous . Lowland meadows consist of associations of Festuca , Poa , Lolium , Agrostis , Trifolium , Euphorbia , Plantago . There are more or less extensive areas where we meet herbaceous plant species rare or endangered . Thus were reported scattered copies of Ornithogalum boucheanum , Ornithogalum pyramidale (băluşca) Xeranthemum annuum (plevaiţă) Echium italicum (approx. 100 copies in the south – west of the village Pecica at a place called “Șanțul Mare”).

A large number of plants are belonging to the ” Red List of superior plants in Romania ” as vulnerable or rare species: Achillea thracica, Stratiotes alloides (forfecuţa bălţii), Agrostemma githago (neghină), Cirsium brachycephalum, Lindernia procumbens, Najas minor (inariţă), Peucedanum officinale (chiminul porcului), Platanthera bifolia (stupiniţă), Rumex aquaticus (ştevie de baltă), Vicia narbonensis L. ssp. Serratifolia.Also the three species Marsilea quadrifolia (trifoiaş de baltă), Salvinia natans (peştişoară), Trapa natans (cornaci) are strictly protected species according to the Berne Convention.

The oak tree (Quercus robur) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) very common in the area, along with meadows, black poplar (Populus nigra) and white (P. alba) and white willow (Salix alba). They are found primarily in a small wood in Cenad and a forest of approx. 6000 ha that stretches along the Mureș downstream from Arad to the town Semlac.

The most important habitats of community interest from Mureș Floodplain are the forestry and wetlands. From the first , 91F0- habitat ” Riparian forests mixed with Quercus robur , Ulmus laevis , Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris) ” is the best represented in terms of occupied area. Characteristic species that make this habitat areoaks (Quercus robur) , ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) and less Velnis (Ulmus laevis) and field elm (Ulmus minor). Unfortunately, the most important species – fails to utilize the abundant tall oaks and often to ensure natural regeneration. Among the wetland habitats, 3270- ” Rivers with muddy banks with vegetation Chenopodion fields and Bidention ” is the most important.

Fauna

 

1The most important mammals are deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), the fox (Vulpes vulpes), otter (Lutra Lutra), the night bat (Nyctalus noctula), Muscardinius avelanarius, squirrel (Spermophylus cytelus).

We can find over 200 species of birds, mostly protected , the protected area was declared internationally as an important avifaunistic area. Some of the species are: the spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina), Coracias garrulus, Anas querquedula, black Stork (Ciconia nigra), Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea), little egret (Egretta garzetta), swallow shore (Riparia riparia), Prigoria (Merops apiaster), skylark (Alauda arvensis), eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), singing thrush (Turdus philomenes) etc.

Herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles) is richly represented , because of the wetland of meadow Mureș. Species like tree frog (Hyla arborea), Eurasian Bittern red -bellied (Bombina bombina); lake frog (Rana esculenta), notched newt (Triturus cristatus), gray lizard (Lacerta agilis), viper (Anguis fragilis), water turtle (Emys orbicularis) are frequently encountered in the park.

The 50 species of fish make the Mureș floodplain the richest segment of the Mureș river, in terms of ichthyofauna. We mention here: Silurus glanis, sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus), grig (Cobitis taenia), Hostile (Gymnocephalusschraetzer ), eel (Misgurnus fossilis).

In the Mureș Floodplain Natural Park we can found many invertebrates and plants. Invertebrates were less inventoried so far, but we can mention species like stag beetle (Lucanus cervus) grove snail (Helix pomatia), clams (Unio crassus), dragonflies (Ophiogomphus Cecil, Coenagrion ornatum).